Tram 83 by fiston mwanza mujila, the poisonwood bible by barbara kingsolver, heart of darkness by jose. Congo, democratic republic of kinshasa political corruption, weak rule of law, and violence remained prevalent in the democratic republic of congo drc in 2014. Emizet francois kisangani is professor of political science at kansas state university. I just finished reading the democratic republic of congo. Officially known as the republic of the congo, the country is often called congo brazzaville, with its capital added parenthetically, to distinguish it from neighbouring democratic republic of the congo, which is. Over the past two decades, the democratic republic. After years of economic decline, conflict, and instability, the democratic republic of congo achieved rapid economic growth in the 2000s along with a reduction in rural consumption poverty. More than 5 million people have been killed in democratic republic of the congo since the late 1990s, home to some of the most serious human rights violations since world war ii. In response to a request from the government of the democratic republic of the congo drc, in 2009 the united nations environment programme unep initiated a national, multithematic assessment of priority environmental issues facing the country. There were probably people living in the area that is today known as the democratic republic of the congo. Democratic republic of the congo enchantment of the world second series by terri willis and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at. Locked not only into its own internal troubles but also into those of the african great lakes region, it has provided more than enough material on forced migration. Democratic republic of congo topics christianity today.
He is also known for his push to africanize names during his presidency, which included changing the countrys name to republic of zaire in 1971 it was changed back in 1997 and his own name. During its recorded history, the area has also been known as congo, congo free state, belgian congo, and zaire. Precolonial history of the democratic republic of the congo. Education is compulsory, tuition free, and universal until age 16, but families are required to pay for books, uniforms, and health insurance fees.
Republic of the congo, country situated astride the equator in westcentral africa. The best articles from christianity today on democratic republic of congo. Decades of misrule and two civil wars have devastated the countrys economy, social fabric, government capacity and infrastructure. It is weighted heavily toward more recent history, which is helpful in the current landscape of literature on drc. Democratic republic of the congo malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in the democratic republic of the congo, accounting for more than 40 percent of all outpatient visits and for 19 percent of deaths among children under five years of age. Background and current developments congressional research service 1 recent developments in february 2011, the congolese government formally charged one senior military officer and 10 soldiers of mass rape in the town of fizi, in the eastern province of south kivu. Discovered in the 1990s, the earliest discovered human remains in the democratic republic of. Its other main objectives in the country are to keep an eye on the 20,000 or so cabindan refugees, most of whom live in pointnoire. Dictatorship a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power not restricted by a constitution or laws. The government does not require registration of births. These programs focused on implementing a comprehensive economic stabilization program to contain inflation and improving. Democratic republic of the congo history britannica.
It is the second largest country in africa by area and the eleventh largest in the world. In the past, mining has been the main engine of the congo economy. Feb 28, 2020 democratic republic of the congo, country located in central africa. Dec 07, 2019 democratic republic a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them. Three new books on the democratic republic of the congo. From 1885 to 1908, congo was colonized by the king of belgium, leopold ii, who took it as his own personal property. The democratic republic of congo, formerly known as zaire.
Rich in minerals, the democratic republic of the congo has a difficult history of predatory mineral extraction, which has been at the heart of many struggles within the country for many decades, but particularly in the 1990s. The democratic republic of congo drc has been widely derided as a failed state, unable to meet the basic needs of its citizens. The first real states, such as the kongo, the lunda, the luba and kuba, appeared south of the equatorial forest on. He is coauthor of the democratic republic of congo. Troops from zimbabwe, angola, namibia, chad, and sudan intervened to support the kinshasa regime. Identification of arms sources found in the conflict in drc.
Table of contents preamble title i general provisions citizen. Economy of the democratic republic of the congo wikipedia. Growth and poverty in the democratic republic of congo. An ngo based in the democratic republic of the congo former zaire which seeks to. The democratic republic of the congo is now under the regime of the constitution which was approved in a referendum by the congolese people, and promulgated on february 18, 2006 by president joseph kabila. The democratic republic of congo formerly zaire has a long history of conflict, but its recent crises can be traced to the aftermath of the 1994 rwandan genocide. It is the democratic republic of the congos sixth constitution since 1960. Politics of the democratic republic of the congo wikipedia. Find the top 100 most popular items in amazon books best sellers. Mobutu sese seko is known for being a longrunning president 196597 of the democratic republic of the congo. The kongo empire, a highly structured and developed state, rules over a region that today covers parts of southwestern congo, northern angola and a slice of the republic of.
Chapin was interested in many aspects of africas natural history. This strategy is predicated on a positive engagement of the congolese government and people on development goals. Mpr was the sole legal political party from 1970 until 1990. Democratic republic of the congo mineral resources map. Democratic republic of the congo country profile nations.
Political economy and governance in the democratic. Democratic republic of the congo democratic republic of the congo political process. Now centered in the east of the country, it involves a range of militant groups local militias, congolese and rwandan rebels, and the congolese army that use control over the countrys rich mineral. Staff recommended that the authorities continue in their cautious approach to borrowing, relying mainly on concessional borrowing, and that the drc. The area now known as the democratic republic of the congo was populated as early as 80,000 years ago, as shown by the 1988 discovery of the semliki harpoon at katanda, one of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, which is believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish. Congos government has never effectively represented or. The book, civil wars in the democratic republic of congo, 19602010 by emizet francois kisangani, is an analysis of the various civil wars in the congo. Republic of the congo capital at brazzaville britannica.
The democratic republic of congo drc remains a highly challenging environment in which to conduct business. Pdf on jun 1, 2014, randi solhjell and others published the democratic republic of congo. In response to violence carried out by exiled rwandan hutu genocidaires, rwandan and ugandan forces invaded the democratic republic. Republique democratique du congo, commonly referred to as dr congo, congokinshasa or the drc, is a country in central africa. Africa boosters, who argue that the region has finally turned a corner and sits on the cusp of a major economic breakthrough, rarely mention the democratic republic of the congo, whose population remains poorer than it was at independence, in 1960. Early in 2003 when the worlds attention was focused on the unfolding calamity of the iraq invasion, another deadly conflict was occurring in the democratic republic of congo drc. Ironically the new president inherits in the late 1990s the identical problem confronting his predecessor, lumumba, when the democratic republic first became independent in 1960. This paper examines the history of conflict in the drc and the. Its emblem is the skyblue flag with a large yellow star in the upper left corner and crossed diagonally by a red strip lightly framed by yellow. Since independence in 1960, the history of the democratic republic of congo drc has been marked by successive conflicts, weak governance, economic mismanagement and widespread corruption.
Learn about sources of continued violence in the democratic republic of congo and how the united nations, african union, and neighboring countries are struggling to curtail it. Conflict minerals and the democratic republic of congo. At the heart of africa is the congo, a country the size of western europe, bordering nine other nations, that since 1996 has been wracked by a brutal war in which millions have died. Democratic republic of the congo, formerly zaire zi. The democratic republic of congo is unfortunately synonymous with its dreadful past and its terrible present, despite its beauty, complex history and unachieved potential. Jan 01, 20 over the past two decades, the democratic republic of congo has been at the centre of the deadliest series of conflicts since the second world war, and now hosts the largest united nations peacekeeping mission in the world. A coup led by joseph mobutu takes place, succeeding and giving him control of the government. Background report on eastern democratic republic of the congo. Georges nzongolantalaja, the congo from leopold to kabila. The democratic republic of the congo roots of the crisis the crisis in the democratic republic of the congo, or drc, has many layers. Politics of the democratic republic of congo take place in a framework of a republic in transition from a civil war to a semipresidential republic on 18 and 19 december 2005, a successful nationwide referendum was carried out on a draft constitution, which set the stage for elections in 2006.
History of democratic republic of congo lonely planet. This amounts to an estimated proportion in slavery of 1. Constitution of the democratic republic of the congo. They are located next to each other and have similar names, but they are different countries. It was presided over by then president mobutu and had branches at every administrative level throughout the country. Democratic republic of the congo political process. In the democratic republic of the congo, the cabinet is more commonly simply referred to as the government.
Official web sites of democratic republic of the congo, links and information on democratic republic of the congo s art, culture, geography, history, travel and tourism, cities, the capital city, airlines, embassies, tourist boards and newspapers. The deal will give china great influence in a country with a long history. Democratic republic of the congo simple english wikipedia. Republic of the congo united states department of state. Democratic republic 9 of the congo 1 introduction the democratic republic of the congo drc is the secondlargest country in africa, with a population of approximately 75 million people. This chapter evaluates the extent to which recent growth has been accompanied by improvements in multidimensional child welfare using arndt et al. I have become involved in mission work in the kasai over the past few years, making several trips to congo. Democratic republic of congo growth with governance in the. As a point of departure, kisangani gives the term civil wars a new meaning because in this book, this term encompasses secession conflicts, ethnic wars, revolts, rebellions, invasions, and mutinies. A ceasefire was signed in july 1999 by the droc, zimbabwe, angola. Democratic republic of congo profile timeline bbc news. The democratic republic of the congo pronunciation help info french. Kabila renamed the country the democratic republic of the congo, but in august 1998 his regime was itself challenged by an insurrection backed by rwanda and uganda.
The country that began as a kings private domain the congo free state, evolved into a colony the belgian congo, became independent in 1960 as the republic of the congo, and later underwent several name changes to the democratic republic of the congo, then to zaire, and back again to the democratic republic of the congo is the product of a complex pattern of historical forces. In 1997, laurent kabila overthrew mobutu sese seko after 32 years of authoritarian and corrupt rule and replaced the old regime by an equally. Economic dimensions of war and peace a choice outstanding academic book in 2006 and of the historical dictionary of the democratic republic of congo. Dec 12, 20 the best books on democratic republic of the congo. Violence in the democratic republic of congo global. Jan 10, 2019 a chronology of key events in the history of the democratic republic of congo, from the 1200s to the present. Discover the best democratic republic of congo travel in best sellers. The democratic republic of the congo is a different country from the republic of the congo. Discovered in the 1990s, the earliest discovered human remains in the democratic republic of the congo have been dated to approximately 90,000 years ago. The conflict in the democratic republic of congo drc has claimed more than 5. Civil wars in the democratic republic of congo, 19602010.
In addition to being in charge of the executory tasks of the government, the president also appoints the prime minister and judges and is commander and chief of armed forces. Usaid has provided assistance to the democratic republic of the congo drc continuously since the countrys first years of independence. The first real states, such as the kongo, the lunda, the luba and kuba, appeared south of the equatorial forest on the savannah from the 14th century onwards. Democratic republic a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them. However, the country is still highly vulnerable to shocks, in particular to its export revenues. During the 1960s, usaid programs were directed at developing the united nations new role as the coordinator of bilateral assistance. The capital, kinshasa, is located on the congo river about 320 miles 515 km from its mouth.
Republique democratique du congo, also known as dr congo, the drc, droc, congokinshasa, or simply the congo, is a country located in central africa. He changes the name of the country from mobutus favoured zaire, reverting instead to the original democratic republic of congo. Three new books on the democratic republic of the congo foreign affairs. At the same time, the current government has taken several steps to improve the business climate and improve economic governance. But the revenues and other benefit streams generated by the sector over the years have not been used in a wise or sustainable fashion, largely due to key problems with sector governance. History of the democratic republic of the congo wikipedia. Relations congressional research service 2 a potential new security challenge emerged in april 2019, when the islamic state is, a.
Between hope and despair, and found it to be an excellent account of the complexities of the wars in congo. These three new books offer keen insights into the political and civil strife that have wracked congo for decades and that the country seems far from resolving. Causes, impact and implications for the great lakes region executive summary the democratic republic of congo is recovering from conflicts, posting substantial improve ment in overall macroeconomic performance since the cessation of the war, on the back of robust copper and cobalt exports. Officially known as the democratic republic of the congo, the country has a 25mile 40km coastline on the atlantic ocean but is otherwise landlocked. The precolonial history of the modernday democratic republic of the congo encompasses the history of the congo basin region up to the establishment of european colonial rule in the era of new imperialism and particularly the creation of the congo free.
It borders on angola in the southwest and west, on the atlantic ocean, cabinda an angolan exclave, and the republic of the congo in the west, on the central african republic and south sudan in the north, on uganda, rwanda, burundi. Christian news and views about democratic republic of congo. Democratic republic of the congo s drc risk of debt distress remains moderate. Democratic republic of the congo, country located in central africa. The democratic republic of the congo enough project. The government is the effective executive arm of the state, in charge of all the countrys main administration, in all the domains reserved to the central government by the constitution, and in all the domains in which the central. The economy of the third largest country in africa relies heavily on mining. The democratic republic of the congo is, within its borders of 30 june 1960, a state based on the rule of law, independent, sovereign, united and indivisible, social, democratic and secular. The best books on democratic republic of the congo. Lses jonathan silver calls michael deiberts book an essential read for those interested in wider postcolonial worlds. The democratic republic of congo drc faces a defining period in its history. A tremendous, intrepid history of the devastating war in the heart of africas congo, with firsthand accounts of the continents worst conflict in modern times. Since the late 19th century, congos vast natural resources have continually attracted violent intervention from abroad and stoked internal conflicts. Congo democratic republic of thes constitution of 2005.1519 910 257 1249 1532 38 944 965 707 1238 334 833 334 996 1385 1423 1148 859 980 1478 1455 515 1155 291 666 450 872 795 802 432 1459 1100 853 866 1204 1327 1488 648 1213 313 383